A new buzzy element in the cosmeceuticals field is ‘skin stem cells’. The majority of skin stem cells lie in the base layer of the epidermis. The foremost purpose is to rejuvenate the skin as it goes through normal homeostasis and wound healing.
The stem cells residing in the epidermis are identical and proficient in dividing themselves for extended periods of time and modifying into multiple data suggests that the loss of a stem cell in lineages based on their tissue origin. When stem cells divide themselves, the daughter cells have the ability to either remain as the parent stem cell or they can adapt into cells with a more exclusive function known as progenitor cells.
These progenies encounter several rapid divisions in the base layer of the skin, they terminate division and travel through suprabasal layers to the tissue surface. After that they gradually differentiate, transitioning from expressions of one set of keratins to another.
Eventually, their nuclei degrade thereby producing an outer layer of dead keratinized cells that are shed. The stem cells constantly renew the outer layer of the skin (epidermis) with a turnover time of approx. 1 month.
The stem cells on the epidermis are stored in a microenvironment called the bulge, which relies at the base of the hair follicle. They remain slumbering there until engaged by neighbouring cells to repair the skin. If a stem cell in one structural unit is lost, then it is quickly replaced by stem cells in the adjacent unit that showcases the multipotential nature and developmental flexibility of skin cells.